Download and install
We provide binaries for x86, ARM, PPC and s390x running on different operating systems such as Linux, Mac OS X and Windows (what's new in PyPy 7.1.1?):
- the Python2.7 compatible release — PyPy2.7 v7.1.1
- the Python3.6 compatible release, beta quality — PyPy3.6 v7.1.1
- the (older) Python3.5 compatible release — PyPy3.5 v7.0
- the Python2.7 Software Transactional Memory special release — PyPy-STM 2.5.1 (Linux x86-64 only)
“JIT Compiler” version
These binaries include a Just-in-Time compiler. They only work on x86 CPUs that have the SSE2 instruction set (most of them do, nowadays), or on x86-64 CPUs. They also contain stackless extensions, like greenlets.
Linux binaries and common distributions
Linux binaries are dynamically linked, as is usual, and thus might not be usable due to the sad story of linux binary compatibility. This means that Linux binaries are only usable on the distributions written next to them unless you're ready to hack your system by adding symlinks to the libraries it tries to open. There are better solutions:
Python2.7 compatible PyPy 7.1.1
Python 3.6 compatible PyPy3.6 v7.1.1-beta
Python 3.5.3 compatible PyPy3.5 v7.0.0
If your CPU is really, really old, it may be a x86-32 without SSE2. There is untested support for manually translating PyPy's JIT without SSE2 (--jit-backend=x86-without-sse2) but note that your machine is probably low-spec enough that running CPython on it is a better idea in the first place.
: stating it again: the Linux binaries are provided for the distributions listed here. If your distribution is not exactly this one, it won't work, you will probably see: pypy: error while loading shared libraries: …. Unless you want to hack a lot, try out the portable Linux binaries.
This is a special version of PyPy! See the Software Transactional Memory (STM) documentation.
The other versions of PyPy are:
- The most up-to-date nightly binary builds with a JIT, if the official release is too old for what you want to do. There are versions for different libc on this site too.
- Reverse debugger: This version enables debugging your Python programs by going forward and backward in time. See the RevDB documentation.
- Sandboxing: A special safe version. Read the docs about sandboxing. This version is not supported and not actively maintained. You will likely have to fix some issues yourself, or checkout an old version, or otherwise play around on your own. We provide this documentation only for historical reasons. Please do not use in production. For reference, there are some very old, unmaintained binaries for Linux (32bit, 64bit).
All binary versions are packaged in a tar.bz2 or zip file. When uncompressed, they run in-place. For now you can uncompress them either somewhere in your home directory or, say, in /opt, and if you want, put a symlink from somewhere like /usr/local/bin/pypy to /path/to/pypy_expanded/bin/pypy. Do not move or copy the executable pypy outside the tree – put a symlink to it, otherwise it will not find its libraries.
Installing more modules
There are as yet few distribution-ready packages. We recommend installing pip, which is the standard package manager of Python. It works like it does on CPython as explained in the installation documentation.
If you use your distribution's PyPy package we recommend you install packages into a virtualenv. If you try to build a module and the build process complains about “missing Python.h”, you may need to install the pypy-dev package.
There are two different versions of NumPy for PyPy. For details see this FAQ question.
1. Standard NumPy
Installation works on any recent PyPy (the release above is fine). For example, without using a virtualenv:
$ ./pypy-xxx/bin/pypy -m ensurepip $ ./pypy-xxx/bin/pip install cython numpy
(See the general installation documentation for more.)
The “numpy” module can also be installed from our own repository rather than from the official source. This version uses our built-in _numpypy multiarray replacement module, written in RPython. This module is not complete, but if it works it should give correct answers. Its performance is hard to predict exactly. For regular NumPy source code that handles large arrays, it is likely to be slower than the standard NumPy. It is faster on pure python code that loop over ndarrays doing things on an element-by-element basis.
Installation (see the installation documentation for installing pip):
pypy -m pip install git+https://bitbucket.org/pypy/numpy.git
Alternatively, the direct way:
git clone https://bitbucket.org/pypy/numpy.git cd numpy pypy setup.py install
If you installed to a system directory, you need to also run this once:
sudo pypy -c 'import numpy'
Note again that this version is incomplete: many things do not work and those that do may not be any faster than NumPy on CPython. For further instructions see the pypy/numpy repository and the FAQ question about the difference between the two.
Building from source
(see more build instructions)
Get the source code. The preferred way is to checkout the current trunk using Mercurial. The trunk usually works and is of course more up-to-date. The following command should run in about 7 minutes nowadays if you have hg >= 3.7 (it is much slower with older versions):
hg clone https://bitbucket.org/pypy/pypy
The trunk contains PyPy 2. For PyPy 3, switch to the correct branch:
# for PyPy 3: switch to the branch of PyPy that implements Python 3.5 hg update py3.5
Alternatively, get one of the following smaller packages for the source at the same revision as the above binaries:
Make sure you installed the dependencies. See the list here.
Enter the goal directory:
Run the rpython script. Here are the common combinations of options (works also with python instead of pypy; requires CPython 2.7 or PyPy 2, even to build PyPy 3):
pypy ../../rpython/bin/rpython -Ojit targetpypystandalone # get the JIT version pypy ../../rpython/bin/rpython -O2 targetpypystandalone # get the no-jit version pypy ../../rpython/bin/rpython -O2 --sandbox targetpypystandalone # get the sandbox version
Enjoy Mandelbrot :-) It takes on the order of half an hour to finish the translation, and about 3GB of RAM on a 32-bit system and about 5GB on 64-bit systems. (Do not start a translation on a machine with insufficient RAM! It will just swap forever. See notes below in that case.)
If you want to install this PyPy as root, please read the next section, Packaging.
It is recommended to use PyPy to do translations, instead of using CPython, because it is twice as fast. You should just start by downloading an official release of PyPy (with the JIT). If you really have to use CPython then note that we are talking about CPython 2.7 here, not CPython 3.x. (Older versions like 2.6 are out.)
On some 32-bit systems, the address space limit of 2 or 3 GB of RAM can be an issue. More generally you may be just a little bit low of RAM. First note that 2 GB is really not enough nowadays; on Windows you first need to refer to the Windows build instructions. More precisely, translation on 32-bit takes at this point 2.7 GB if PyPy is used and 2.9 GB if CPython is used. There are two workarounds:
1. use PyPy, not CPython. If you don't have any PyPy so far, not even an older version, then you need to build one first, with some parts removed. So, first translate with ...rpython -Ojit targetpypystandalone --withoutmod-micronumpy --withoutmod-cpyext, then copy pypy-c and libpypy_c.so somewhere else, and finally call it with ...pypy-c ../../rpython/bin/rpython -Ojit.
2. if even using PyPy instead of CPython is not enough, try to tweak some internal parameters. Example (slower but saves around 400MB):
PYPY_DONT_RUN_SUBPROCESS=1 PYPY_GC_MAX_DELTA=200MB pypy --jit loop_longevity=300 ../../rpython/bin/rpython -Ojit --source # then read the next point about --source
You can run translations with --source, which only builds the C source files (and prints at the end where). Then you can cd there and execute make. This is another way to reduce memory usage. Note that afterwards, you have to run manually pypy-c .../pypy/tool/build_cffi_imports.py if you want to be able to import the cffi-based modules.
On Linux, translating with asmgcroot, is delicate. It requires using gcc with no particularly fancy options. It does not work e.g. with clang, or if you pass uncommon options with the CFLAGS environment variable. If you insist on passing these options or using clang, then you can compile PyPy with the default shadow stack option instead (for a small performance price in non-JITted code).
Like other JITs, PyPy doesn't work out of the box on some Linux distributions that trade full POSIX compliance for extra security features. E.g. with PAX, you have to run PyPy with paxctl -cm. This also applies to translation (unless you use CPython to run the translation and you specify --source).
Once PyPy is translated from source the binary package similar to those provided in the section Default (with a JIT Compiler) above could be easily created with package.py script as following:
cd ./pypy/pypy/tool/release/ python package.py --help #for information python package.py --archive-name pypy-my-own-package-name
It is recommended to use package.py because custom scripts will invariably become out-of-date. If you want to write custom scripts anyway, note an easy-to-miss point: some modules are written with CFFI, and require some compilation. If you install PyPy as root without pre-compiling them, normal users will get errors:
- PyPy 2.5.1 or earlier: normal users would see permission errors. Installers need to run pypy -c “import gdbm” and other similar commands at install time; the exact list is in package.py. Users seeing a broken installation of PyPy can fix it after-the-fact if they have sudo rights, by running once e.g. sudo pypy -c "import gdbm.
- PyPy 2.6 and later: anyone would get ImportError: no module named _gdbm_cffi. Installers need to run pypy _gdbm_build.py in the lib_pypy directory during the installation process (plus others; see the exact list in package.py). Users seeing a broken installation of PyPy can fix it after-the-fact, by running pypy /path/to/lib_pypy/_gdbm_build.py. This command produces a file called _gdbm_cffi.pypy-41.so locally, which is a C extension module for PyPy. You can move it at any place where modules are normally found: e.g. in your project's main directory, or in a directory that you add to the env var PYTHONPATH.
Here are the checksums for each of the downloads of PyPy 7.1.1, 7.1.0, 7.0.0
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pypy 3.6-v7.1.0 sha256:
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pypy 3.5-v7.0.0 sha256:
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